Yoghurt Intake and Gastric Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 16 Studies of the StoP Consortium

Nutrients. 2023 Apr 13;15(8):1877. doi: 10.3390/nu15081877.


Background: Yoghurt can modify gastrointestinal disease risk, possibly acting on gut microbiota. Our study aimed at exploring the under-investigated association between yoghurt and gastric cancer (GC).

Methods: We pooled data from 16 studies from the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project. Total yoghurt intake was derived from food frequency questionnaires. We calculated study-specific odds ratios (ORs) of GC and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for increasing categories of yoghurt consumption using univariate and multivariable unconditional logistic regression models. A two-stage analysis, with a meta-analysis of the pooled adjusted data, was conducted.

Results: The analysis included 6278 GC cases and 14,181 controls, including 1179 cardia and 3463 non-cardia, 1191 diffuse and 1717 intestinal cases. The overall meta-analysis revealed no association between increasing portions of yoghurt intake (continuous) and GC (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.94-1.02). When restricting to cohort studies, a borderline inverse relationship was found (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.88-0.99). The adjusted and unadjusted OR were 0.92 (95% CI = 0.85-0.99) and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.73-0.84) for any vs. no yoghurt consumption and GC risk. The OR for 1 category of increase in yoghurt intake was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.91-1.02) for cardia, 1.03 (95% CI = 1.00-1.07) for non-cardia, 1.12 (95% CI = 1.07-1.19) for diffuse and 1.02 (95% CI = 0.97-1.06) for intestinal GC. No effect was seen within hospital-based and population-based studies, nor in men or women.

Conclusions: We found no association between yoghurt and GC in the main adjusted models, despite sensitivity analyses suggesting a protective effect. Additional studies should further address this association.

Keywords: diet; gastric cancer; nutrition; yoghurt.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Helicobacter Infections*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / prevention & control