Newcastle disease (ND) has been a consistent risk factor to the poultry industry worldwide. Its pathogen, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is also a promising antitumor treatment candidate. The pathogenic mechanism has intrigued the great curiosity of researchers, and advances in the last two decades have been summarized in this paper. The NDV's pathogenic ability is highly related to the basic protein structure of the virus, which is described in the Introduction of this review. The overall clinical signs and recent findings pertaining to NDV-related lymph tissue damage are then described. Given the involvement of cytokines in the overall virulence of NDV, cytokines, particularly IL6 and IFN expressed during infection, are reviewed. On the other hand, the host also has its way of antagonizing the virus, which starts with the detection of the pathogen. Thus, advances in NDV's physiological cell mechanism and the subsequent IFN response, autophagy, and apoptosis are summarized to provide a whole picture of the NDV infection process.
Keywords: Newcastle disease virus; apoptosis; autophagy; cytokine; pathologic mechanism; receptor.