Gender-affirming hormone therapy, mental health, and surgical considerations for aging transgender and gender diverse adults

Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2023 Apr 19:14:20420188231166494. doi: 10.1177/20420188231166494. eCollection 2023.


As the transgender and gender diverse (TGD) population ages, more transfeminine and transmasculine individuals present to clinic to initiate or continue their gender-affirming care at older ages. Currently available guidelines on gender-affirming care are excellent resources for the provision of gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT), primary care, surgery, and mental health care but are limited in their scope as to whether recommendations require tailoring to older TGD adults. Data that inform guideline-recommended management considerations, while informative and increasingly evidence-based, mainly come from studies of younger TGD populations. Whether results from these studies, and therefore recommendations, can or should be extrapolated to aging TGD adults remains to be determined. In this perspective review, we acknowledge the lack of data in older TGD adults and discuss considerations for evaluating cardiovascular disease, hormone-sensitive cancers, bone health and cognitive health, gender-affirming surgery, and mental health in the older TGD population on GAHT.

Keywords: aging; bone health; cancer; cardiovascular disease; cognitive health; gender diverse; gender-affirming hormone therapy; gender-affirming surgery; mental health; transgender.

Publication types

  • Review