Neuropsychological deficits in active licensed professional boxers

J Clin Psychol. 1986 May;42(3):520-5. doi: 10.1002/1097-4679(198605)42:3<520::aid-jclp2270420319>;2-6.


Young, active, licensed professional boxers (N = 19) were found to display a pattern of neuropsychological deficits consistent with the more severe punch-drunk syndrome of years past. These deficits resulted in significantly lower test performance than that of control athletes (N = 10) matched for race, age, and level of education. Tests that showed significant differences between groups include subtests of the Quick Neurological Screening Test, subtests of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery, and the Randt Memory Test. Fifteen of the 19 boxers scored in the impaired range of the Reitan Impairment Index, as compared to 2 of the 10 controls.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Athletic Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Athletic Injuries / epidemiology
  • Boxing*
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / diagnosis*
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests