Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and downstream lineage-biased multipotent progenitors (MPP) tailor blood production and control myelopoiesis on demand. Recent lineage tracing analyses revealed MPPs to be major functional contributors to steady-state hematopoiesis. However, we still lack a precise resolution of myeloid differentiation trajectories and cellular heterogeneity in the MPP compartment. Here, we found that myeloid-biased MPP3 are functionally and molecularly heterogeneous, with a distinct subset of myeloid-primed secretory cells with high endoplasmic reticulum (ER) volume and FcγR expression. We show that FcγR+/ERhigh MPP3 are a transitional population serving as a reservoir for rapid production of granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMP), which directly amplify myelopoiesis through inflammation-triggered secretion of cytokines in the local bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Our results identify a novel regulatory function for a secretory MPP3 subset that controls myeloid differentiation through lineage-priming and cytokine production and acts as a self-reinforcing amplification compartment in inflammatory stress and disease conditions.
© 2023 Kang et al.