Biomaterials That Induce Immunogenic Cell Death

Small Methods. 2023 May;7(5):e2300204. doi: 10.1002/smtd.202300204. Epub 2023 Apr 28.


The immune system takes part in most physiological and pathological processes of the body, including the occurrence and development of cancer. Immunotherapy provides a promising modality for inhibition and even the cure of cancer. During immunotherapy, the immunogenic cell death (ICD) of tumor cells induced by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, phototherapy, bioactive materials, and so forth, triggers a series of cellular responses by causing the release of tumor-associated antigens and damage-associated molecular patterns, which ultimately activate innate and adaptive immune responses. Among them, the ICD-induced biomaterials attract increasing conditions as a benefit of biosafety and multifunctional modifications. This Review summarizes the research progress in biomaterials for inducing ICD via triggering endoplasmic reticulum oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell membrane rupture and discusses the application prospects of ICD-inducing biomaterials in clinical practice for cancer immunotherapy.

Keywords: biomaterials; cell membrane rupture; endoplasmic reticulum oxidative stress; immunogenic cell death; mitochondrial dysfunction.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biocompatible Materials / therapeutic use
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
  • Humans
  • Immunogenic Cell Death*
  • Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Phototherapy


  • Biocompatible Materials