Porphyromonas Gingivalis in the Development of Periodontitis: Impact on Dysbiosis and Inflammation

Arch Razi Inst. 2022 Oct 31;77(5):1539-1551. doi: 10.22092/ARI.2021.356596.1875. eCollection 2022 Oct.


Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the dental plaque and affects the soft tissues supporting the tooth. It is one of the most practical oral health issues across the globe and adversely affects the quality of life. In a neutrophil-mediated action, the inflammatory response to periodontitis destroys the periodontal ligaments, gums, the alveolar bone, and the cementum. Some of the most associated invasive pathogens with periodontitis are Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetecomitans, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Google Scholar and PubMed were used to search the evidence using key terms like 'periodontitis,' 'Porphyromonas Gingivalis,' 'Oral Dysbiosis and Periodontitis,' 'Porphyromonas Gingivalis and Periodontitis,' etc. Only studies were included reviewing the Porphyromonas Gingivalis and its role in periodontitis. It has been observed from several oral pathogens that P. gingivalis has received immense attention due to a strong association between Porphyromonas Gingivalis and periodontal disease. Porphyromonas Gingivalis also disrupts the delicate balance between various members of the oral microbial communities and promotes oral dysbiosis. The dysbiotic state of the oral microbiome is distinct in functional capabilities and shows a higher expression of genes involved in lipopolysaccharide synthesis, energy regulation, and bacterial motility. Certain virulence factors such as gingipains, LPS, and fimbriae also increase the invasion and pathogenicity of Porphyromonas Gingivalis. Its presence in the periodontal tissues increases the secretion of numerous pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-1β, leading to the destruction of soft gingival tissues and ligaments. Early detection of periodontitis and immediate treatment can prevent soft tissue destruction and dentition loss. In conclusion, details about the oral microbiome, oral dysbiosis, and inflammation may offer new therapeutic options in the future, including a personalized approach and the use of combination therapy.

Keywords: Oral Dysbiosis; Oral microbiota; Periodontitis; Periodontitis Treatment; Porphyromonas Gingivalis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dysbiosis
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Periodontitis* / microbiology
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis* / physiology
  • Quality of Life