Synthesis and evaluation of the antitumor drugs 10-methyl- and 10-ethyl-10-deazaminopterin (15a,b) were previously reported for the diastereomeric mixtures, lacking resolution at the C-10 position. In order to assess biological properties of the individual diastereomers, the C-10 isomers of 4-amino-4-deoxy-10-methyl- and 10-ethyl-10-deazapteroic acids (13a,b) were prepared by total synthesis. Coupling with L-glutamate afforded the appropriate diastereomers of the title compounds. Biochemical, transport, and cell growth inhibitory properties in L1210 cells and folate-dependent bacteria were measured. Differences were generally less than 2-fold between diastereomeric pairs, but a factor of 3 was noted for d,L-15b vs. l,L-15b in inhibition of DHFR from L1210 cells and in cytotoxicity toward L1210 cells. An in vivo comparison of the isomers of 15b with racemic compound against L1210 in mice did not show a significant efficacy difference (ILS) among the compounds. However, d,L-15b showed an acute toxicity about 2.5 times that of l,L-15b.