Objective: To evaluate the demographic, maternal, and community-level predictors of pediatric respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza diagnosis among an urban population of children residing in Rochester, NY.
Study design: A test-negative case-control design was used to investigate various non-clinical determinants of RSV and influenza diagnosis among 1,808 children aged 0-14 years who presented to the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) or an affiliated health clinic in Rochester, NY between 2012-2019. These children were all tested for RSV and influenza via polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) method, including RSV and influenza diagnosis of all severity types. Test results were linked to medical records, birth certificates, questionnaires administered through the Statewide Perinatal Data System, and the US census by census tracts to obtain information on child, maternal, demographic, and socio-economic characteristics.
Results: Overall the strongest predictor of RSV and influenza diagnosis was child's age, with every year increase in child's age, risk for RSV decreased (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.79) and risk for influenza increased (OR: 1.20; 95%: 1.16, 1.24). In addition to age, non-private insurance type was positively associated with influenza diagnosis. When considering the proportion of positive cases for RSV and influenza over all PCR tests by respiratory season, a spike in influenza cases was observed in 2018-2019.
Conclusions: Age was a strong predictor of RSV and influenza diagnosis among this urban sample of children.
Keywords: Determinants; Flu; Predictors; RSV; Risk factors.