Children with genetic skeletal disorders have variable conditions that can lead to sleep-disordered breathing, and polysomnography is the gold standard for diagnosing this condition. We aimed to review polysomnography findings, to assess the severity of sleep apnea, and to investigate the clinical variables predictive of sleep-disordered breathing in these patients. We retrospectively collected the medical records of patients with genetic skeletal disorders who underwent polysomnography for 5 years. Twenty-seven children with various genetic skeletal disorders, including achondroplasia (14), Crouzon syndrome (3), acromesomelic dysplasia Maroteaux type (3), Apert syndrome (2), osteopetrosis (1), Jeune dysplasia (1), Desbuquois dysplasia (1), acrodysostosis (1), and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (1) were enrolled. The median age at the first polysomnography was 58 (1st-3rd quartile: 31-113) months. The overall sleep-disordered breathing results were: 19 (70.3%) had obstructive sleep apneas (OSA) (4 mild, 6 moderate, 9 severe), 2 (7.4%) had central apneas, 4 (14.8%) had nocturnal hypoventilation. There was a significant correlation between non-ambulatory status with both total AHI and OSA (p < 0.001, rho: -0.66/p = 0.04, rho: 0.38, respectively). Nine patients received positive airway pressure titration, and the oAHI values of all returned to the normal range. These patients were started with positive airway pressure treatment. Our cohort showed that the majority of the patients with skeletal dysplasia had sleep apnea syndrome characterised mainly by OSA, highlighting the importance of polysomnography screening for sleep disorders. Positive airway pressure therapy represents an effective treatment for sleep-disordered breathing in those patients.
Keywords: polysomnography; skeletal disorders; sleep-disordered breathing.
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