Improved outcomes for spinal versus general anesthesia for hip fracture surgery: a retrospective cohort study of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program

Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2024 Jan 11;49(1):4-9. doi: 10.1136/rapm-2022-104217.

Abstract

Background: There is a lack of consensus in the literature as to whether anesthetic modality influences perioperative complications in hip fracture surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of spinal anesthesia compared with general anesthesia on postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients who underwent hip fracture surgery using data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP).

Methods: We used the ACS NSQIP to identify patients aged 50 and older who received either spinal or general anesthesia for hip fracture surgery from 2016 to 2019. Propensity-score matching was performed to control for clinically relevant covariates. The primary outcome of interest was the combined incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) or death within 30 days. Secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality, hospital length of stay and operative time.

Results: Among the 40 527 patients aged 50 and over who received either spinal or general anesthesia for hip fracture surgery from 2016 to 2019, 7358 spinal anesthesia cases were matched to general anesthesia cases. General anesthesia was associated with a higher incidence of combined 30-day stroke, MI or death compared with spinal anesthesia (OR 1.219 (95% CI 1.076 to 1.381); p=0.002). General anesthesia was also associated with a higher frequency of 30-day mortality (OR 1.276 (95% CI 1.099 to 1.481); p=0.001) and longer operative time (64.73 vs 60.28 min; p<0.001). Spinal anesthesia had a longer average hospital length of stay (6.29 vs 5.73 days; p=0.001).

Conclusion: Our propensity-matched analysis suggests that spinal anesthesia as compared with general anesthesia is associated with lower postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

Keywords: Health Care; OUTCOMES; Outcome Assessment; REGIONAL ANESTHESIA.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anesthesia, General / adverse effects
  • Anesthesia, Spinal* / adverse effects
  • Hip Fractures* / diagnosis
  • Hip Fractures* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications / diagnosis
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Quality Improvement
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stroke* / complications
  • Treatment Outcome