The 2023 Duke-International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases Criteria for Infective Endocarditis: Updating the Modified Duke Criteria

Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Aug 22;77(4):518-526. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad271.


The microbiology, epidemiology, diagnostics, and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) have changed significantly since the Duke Criteria were published in 1994 and modified in 2000. The International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCVID) convened a multidisciplinary Working Group to update the diagnostic criteria for IE. The resulting 2023 Duke-ISCVID IE Criteria propose significant changes, including new microbiology diagnostics (enzyme immunoassay for Bartonella species, polymerase chain reaction, amplicon/metagenomic sequencing, in situ hybridization), imaging (positron emission computed tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, cardiac computed tomography), and inclusion of intraoperative inspection as a new Major Clinical Criterion. The list of "typical" microorganisms causing IE was expanded and includes pathogens to be considered as typical only in the presence of intracardiac prostheses. The requirements for timing and separate venipunctures for blood cultures were removed. Last, additional predisposing conditions (transcatheter valve implants, endovascular cardiac implantable electronic devices, prior IE) were clarified. These diagnostic criteria should be updated periodically by making the Duke-ISCVID Criteria available online as a "Living Document."

Keywords: Duke Criteria; ISCVID; PET/CT; echocardiography; endocarditis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Communicable Diseases* / complications
  • Endocarditis* / etiology
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial* / microbiology
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis*
  • Humans
  • Positron-Emission Tomography


  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18