National Practice Patterns in Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma: Updates in Management and Survival

Ann Surg Oncol. 2023 Aug;30(8):5119-5129. doi: 10.1245/s10434-023-13528-x. Epub 2023 May 4.


Background: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy with a historically poor prognosis. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has emerged as an effective therapy for patients with peritoneal malignancies. A contemporary analysis of trends in management of and survival from MPM is warranted.

Methods: Patients with MPM were identified from the National Cancer Database (2004-2018). Patients were categorized by treatment (CRS-HIPEC, CRS-chemotherapy, CRS only, chemotherapy only, no treatment), and joinpoint regression was employed to compute the annual percent change (APC) in treatment over time. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze factors associated with survival.

Results: Of 2683 patients with MPM, 19.1% underwent CRS-HIPEC, and 21.1% received no treatment. Joinpoint regression revealed a statistically significant increase in the proportion of patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC over time (APC 3.21, p = 0.01), and a concurrent decrease in the proportion of patients who underwent no treatment (APC - 2.21, p = 0.02). Median overall survival was 19.5 months. Factors independently associated with survival included CRS-HIPEC, CRS, histology, sex, age, race, Charlson Comorbidity Index, insurance, and hospital type. Although there was a strong association between year of diagnosis and survival on univariate analysis (2016-2018 HR 0.67, p < 0.001), this association was attenuated after adjustment for treatment.

Conclusions: CRS-HIPEC is increasingly employed as a treatment for MPM. In parallel, there has been a decrease in patients receiving no treatment with an increase in overall survival. These findings suggest that patients with MPM may be receiving more appropriate therapy; however, a substantial proportion of patients may remain undertreated.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced*
  • Lung Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Mesothelioma* / pathology
  • Mesothelioma, Malignant*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate