In vitro comparison of middle meningeal artery embolization with Squid liquid embolic agent and Contour polyvinyl alcohol particles

J Neurointerv Surg. 2024 Feb 12;16(3):280-284. doi: 10.1136/jnis-2023-020132.


Background: Liquid embolic agents and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles have been used for the embolization of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) for the treatment of chronic subdural hematomas. However, the vascular penetration and distribution of these embolic agents have not yet been compared. The current study compares distribution of a liquid embolic agent (Squid) to PVA particles (Contour) in an in vitro model of the MMA.

Methods: MMA models were embolized with Contour PVA particles 45-150 µm, Contour PVA particles 150-250 µm, and Squid-18 liquid embolic agent (n=5 each). The models were scanned and every vascular segment with embolic agent was manually marked on the images. Embolized vascular length as a percentage of control, average embolized vascular diameter, and embolization time were compared between the groups.

Results: The 150-250 µm Contour particles primarily accumulated close to the microcatheter tip, yielding proximal branch occlusions. The 45-150 µm Contour particles achieved a more distal distribution, but in a patchy segmental pattern. However, the models embolized with Squid-18 had a consistently distal, near-complete and homogenous distribution. Embolized vascular length was significantly higher (76±13% vs 5±3%, P=0.0007) and average embolized vessel diameter was significantly smaller (405±25 µm vs 775±225 µm, P=0.0006) with Squid than with Contour. Embolization time with Squid was also lower (2.8±2.4 min vs 6.4±2.7 min, P=0.09).

Conclusions: Squid-18 liquid results in a considerably more consistent, distal and homogeneous pattern of embolysate distribution than Contour PVA particles in an anatomical model of the MMA tree.

Keywords: embolic; liquid embolic material.

MeSH terms

  • Embolization, Therapeutic* / methods
  • Humans
  • Meningeal Arteries / diagnostic imaging
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol*
  • Polyvinyls


  • Polyvinyl Alcohol
  • Polyvinyls