A retrospective study of congenital cardiac malformations in 29 goats

J Vet Diagn Invest. 2023 Jul;35(4):404-408. doi: 10.1177/10406387231171568. Epub 2023 May 6.


Cardiac malformations are sporadically diagnosed in domestic species; however, little literature is available for this group of developmental anomalies in goats. We performed a retrospective study to catalog congenital cardiac conditions in goats submitted to the University of California-Davis, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Anatomic Pathology Autopsy Service. From 2000 to 2021, of 1,886 goat autopsies, 29 cases of cardiac malformations were identified (1.5%). Thirteen were ≤ 2-wk-old, 8 were 1-6-mo-old, and 8 were adults 2-9-y-old. The most common malformations were ventricular septal defect (VSD; 21 of 29), atrial septal defect or persistent foramen ovale (10 of 29), and double-outlet right ventricle (3 of 29). Nine cases had > 1 malformation, typically including a VSD. Conditions that had not been reported in the goat included double-outlet right ventricle (3), tetralogy of Fallot (1), cor triatriatum sinister (1), and mitral valve dysplasia (1). Two adult cases were incidental and not suspected clinically. Cardiac malformations occur not uncommonly in goats and should be considered in a wide age range.

Keywords: autopsy; congenital; goats; heart defects.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autopsy / veterinary
  • Double Outlet Right Ventricle* / veterinary
  • Goat Diseases*
  • Goats
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / diagnosis
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / pathology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / veterinary
  • Retrospective Studies