2-Methoxyestradiol-3,17-O,O-bis-sulfamate inhibits store-operated Ca2+ entry in T lymphocytes and prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2023 Aug;1870(6):119485. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2023.119485. Epub 2023 May 6.


Ca2+ signaling is one of the essential signaling systems for T lymphocyte activation, the latter being an essential step in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) ensures long lasting Ca2+ signaling and is of utmost importance for major downstream T lymphocyte activation steps, e.g. nuclear localization of the transcription factor 'nuclear factor of activated T cells' (NFAT). 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), an endogenous metabolite of estradiol (E2), blocks nuclear translocation of NFAT. The likely underlying mechanism is inhibition of SOCE, as shown for its synthetic sulfamate ester analogue 2-ethyl-3-sulfamoyloxy-17β-cyanomethylestra-1,3,5(10)-triene (STX564). Here, we demonstrate that another synthetic bis-sulfamoylated 2ME2 derivative, 2-methoxyestradiol-3,17-O,O-bis-sulfamate (2-MeOE2bisMATE, STX140), an orally bioavailable, multi-targeting anticancer agent and potent steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitor, antagonized SOCE in T lymphocytes. Downstream events, e.g. secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and interleukin-17, were decreased by STX140 in in vitro experiments. Remarkably, STX140 dosed in vivo completely blocked the clinical disease in both active and transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats, a T cell-mediated animal model for MS, at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day i.p., whereas neither 2ME2 nor Irosustat, a pure STS inhibitor, showed any effect. The STS inhibitory activity of STX140 is therefore not responsible for its activity in this model. Taken together, inhibition of SOCE by STX140 resulting in full antagonism of clinical symptoms in EAE in the Lewis rat, paired with the known excellent bioavailability and pharmaceutical profile of this drug, open potentially new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of MS.

Keywords: Calcium signaling; Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Store-operated calcium entry.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 2-Methoxyestradiol
  • Animals
  • Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental* / drug therapy
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Lew
  • T-Lymphocytes*


  • 2-methoxyestradiol-3,17-O,O-bis(sulfamate)
  • 2-Methoxyestradiol
  • sulfamic acid
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations