AmpC Inhibition: An Explicit Approach against Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR)

Curr Top Med Chem. 2023;23(20):1919-1927. doi: 10.2174/1568026623666230504095005.


Multi-drug resistance and its transmission is a ubiquitous health issue worldwide. The beta-lactamase AmpC resistance is a major concern among all health settings like hospitals and child care centers, etc. The clinical pipeline of the new antibiotics remains dry due to the production of AmpC beta-lactamases by the bacteria to develop resistance against antibiotics. According to the global antimicrobial resistance and use surveillance system, the rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin an antibiotic commonly used to treat urinary tract infections, varied from 8.4% to 92.9% for Escherichia coli and from 4.1% to 79.4% for Klebsiellapneumoniae in different countries. The lack of comprehensiveness within the data makes a choice problematic for the selection of appropriate β-lactam antibiotic for the treatment of resistant microorganisms. Most experts agree it is prudent to avoid expanded-spectrum (i.e. third-generation) cephalosporins for the treatment of organisms posing the greatest risk of AmpC induction. Nonetheless, the development of specific inhibitors for the AmpC enzyme, either naturally or synthetically, is only unfolding. To date, there is no single and clinically active drug available that inhibits the AmpC enzyme and combats multidrug resistance and its transmission in individuals. The deficit of the enzyme inhibitor focused the researchers to work in the area. This present review will emphasize on the chemistry, and structure of clinically important and potent inhibitors against AmpC enzymes.

Keywords: AmpC induction; AmpC inhibition; AmpC resistance; Enzyme; Multi-drug Resistance; β-lactam antibiotic.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents* / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents* / pharmacology
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Cephalosporins
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Escherichia coli
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • beta-Lactamases*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • beta-Lactamases
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Cephalosporins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors