Serum CD64 as a Marker for Chronic Periprosthetic Joint Infection

Arthroplast Today. 2023 Apr 21:21:101138. doi: 10.1016/j.artd.2023.101138. eCollection 2023 Jun.


Background: Serum cluster of differentiation 64 (CD64) has emerged as a diagnostic test for musculoskeletal infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of serum CD64 in diagnosing periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) compared to conventional markers like white blood count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and interleukin-6 (IL-6).

Methods: A prospective case-control study on patients undergoing revision hip or knee arthroplasty surgery >6 weeks after their index surgery was performed at a single institution. Whole blood samples were drawn within 24 hours prior to revision surgery for white blood count, ESR, CRP, IL-6, and CD64. Intraoperative cultures were obtained during the revision, and PJI was defined using the major criteria from the 2018 Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Fisher's exact test were used to determine if there were significant differences in serum laboratory values between patients with and without infection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and accuracy of each test were calculated.

Results: With an average age of 67 years, 39 patients with 15 revision THAs and 24 TKAs, were included. 19 patients (48.7%) were determined to have PJI. Patients with PJI had significantly higher CD64 (P = .036), CRP (P = .016), and ESR (P = .045). CD64 had the highest specificity (100%) and PPV (100%), moderate accuracy (69.2%), but low sensitivity (37.0%) and negative predictive value (62.5%).

Conclusions: Given the high specificity, PPV, and accuracy, CD64 may be an excellent confirmatory test to help diagnose PJI.

Keywords: CD64; Complications; Periprosthetic joint infection; Total hip arthroplasty; Total knee arthroplasty.