Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor, accounting for 81% of intracranial tumors. The diagnosis and prognosis assessment of glioma are mainly based on imaging. However, imaging cannot be fully used as the basis for diagnosis and prognosis assessment due to the infiltrative growth characteristics of glioma. Therefore, the discovery and identification of novel biomarkers is particularly important for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment of glioma. The latest findings suggest that a variety of biomarkers in the tissues and blood of glioma patients can be used for the auxiliary diagnosis and prognosis assessment of glioma. Among them, IDH1/2 gene mutation, BRAF gene mutation and fusion, p53 gene mutation, increased telomerase activity, circulating tumor cells and non-coding RNA can be used as diagnostic markers. Prognostic markers include 1p/19p codeletion, MGMT gene promoter methylation, upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-28, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 and CD26, and downregulation of Smad4. This review highlights the latest advances of biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis assessment of glioma.
Keywords: IDH1/2 gene mutation; MGMT gene promoter methylation; biomarker; diagnosis; glioma; prognosis.