Glycemia Risk Index as a Novel Metric to Evaluate the Safety of Glycemic Control in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: An Observational, Multicenter, Real-Life Cohort Study

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2023 Jul;25(7):507-512. doi: 10.1089/dia.2023.0040. Epub 2023 May 26.


Glycemia risk index (GRI) is a novel composite metric for the evaluation of the safety of glycemic management and control. The aim of this study was to evaluate GRI and its correlations with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics by analyzing real-life CGM data in 1067 children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using four different treatment strategies (intermittently scanned CGM [isCGM]-multiple daily injections [MDIs]; real-time CGM-MDIs; rtCGM-insulin pump; hybrid closed-loop [HCL] therapy). GRI was positively correlated with high blood glucose index, low blood glucose index, mean glycemia, its standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and HbA1c. The four treatment strategy groups showed significantly different GRI with the lowest value in the HCL group (30.8) and the highest in the isCGM-MDIs group (68.4). These findings support the use of GRI for the assessment of the glycemic risk and the safety of specific treatment in pediatric subjects with T1D.

Keywords: Children and adolescents; Continuous glucose monitoring; Glycemia risk index; Type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / drug therapy
  • Glycemic Control
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Insulin


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin