Six-month blood pressure and glucose control among HIV-infected adults with elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia in northern Tanzania: A prospective observational study

PLoS One. 2023 May 8;18(5):e0285472. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0285472. eCollection 2023.


Background: People with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa are increasingly developing age-related comorbidities. The purpose of this prospective observational study was to describe 6-month outcomes among Tanzanians with HIV and elevated blood pressure or hyperglycemia under current care pathways.

Methods: Adults presenting for routine HIV care were enrolled and underwent blood pressure and blood glucose measurements. Participants with abnormal blood pressure or glucose were referred for further care, as per current guidelines. Participants' blood pressure and point-of-care glucose were re-evaluated during their 6-month follow-up visit. Elevated blood pressure was defined as systolic ≥140 mmHg or diastolic ≥90 mmHg. Hyperglycemia was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl or random glucose ≥200 mg/dl. An electrocardiogram was obtained at enrollment and at follow-up. Interim myocardial infarction and interim myocardial ischemia were defined as new pathologic Q waves and new T-wave inversions, respectively.

Results: Of 500 participants, 155 had elevated blood pressure and 17 had hyperglycemia at enrolment. At 6-month follow-up, 7 (4.6%) of 155 participants with elevated blood pressure reported current use of an anti-hypertensive medication, 100 (66.2%) had persistent elevated blood pressure, 12 (7.9%) developed interim myocardial infarction, and 13 (8.6%) developed interim myocardial ischemia. Among 17 participants with hyperglycemia, 9 (56%) had persistent hyperglycemia at 6 months and 2 (12.5%) reported current use of an anti-hyperglycemic medication.

Conclusions: Interventions are needed to improve non-communicable disease care pathways among Tanzanians with HIV.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Blood Pressure
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia* / complications
  • Hypertension*
  • Myocardial Infarction*
  • Tanzania / epidemiology


  • Blood Glucose