Aims: Data on the association between nut consumption and prostate cancer risk are conflicting. Therefore, this systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis aimed to summarize available findings from observational studies on the associations of nut intake with risk of total, advanced, non-advanced, and fatal prostate cancers.
Data synthesis: We searched the online databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science as well as Google Scholar using appropriate keywords to identify eligible articles up to September 2022. In total, 11 articles with a total sample size of 287,786 participants and 32,213 cases of prostate cancer were included in the current systematic review and meta-analysis. By comparing the highest and lowest intake of total nuts, pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for total, advanced, non-advanced, and fatal prostate cancers were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.85-1.04, P = 0.22), 1.10 (95% CI: 0.98-1.24, P = 0.12), 0.97 (95% CI: 0.85-1.11, P = 0.69), 0.97 (95% CI: 0.79-1.18, P = 0.73), respectively, which indicated non-significant inverse associations for total, non-advanced, and fatal prostate cancers and a non-significant positive association for advanced prostate cancer. In the dose-response analyses, we found no evidence of a linear or non-linear association between total nut intake and prostate cancer risk. Data on other types of nuts, including walnut, tree nuts, peanut, and peanut butter, were not sufficient for performing a meta-analysis.
Conclusion: We found no significant association between nut intake and risk of total, advanced, non-advanced, and fatal prostate cancer. Further studies are required to confirm our findings.
Prospero registration code: CRD42022347094.
Ethical approval: Not required.
Keywords: Diet; Meta-analysis; Nuts; Prostate cancer.
Copyright © 2023 The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.