Combined DSA- and US-guided management of acute bleeding: effectiveness of percutaneous glue embolization in six cases

J Ultrasound. 2024 Mar;27(1):179-184. doi: 10.1007/s40477-023-00785-5. Epub 2023 May 10.


Aims: This study aims to report on safety and effectiveness of glue embolization of acute hemorrhages performed by US-guided percutaneous direct puncture, in patients where the standard endovascular approach is technically unfavourable.

Methods: In this single center retrospective analysis, patients affected by traumatic or non traumatic acute hemorrhages were treated with glue embolization technically performed by US-guided direct puncture. Patients suffered from active bleeding detected at contrast-enhanced Computer Tomography and confirmed at Digital Subtracted Arteriography, with concomitant hemoglobin drop and blood pressure reduction. Six patients were reviewed; hemorrhages occurred in liver parenchima (1), gallbladder (1) and lower limbs (4). Bleedings etiologies were post-traumatic (5) and inflammatory (1); four had extraluminal blushes while 2 were pseudoaneurysms. In five cases (4 limbs and 1 hepatic bleedings) the direct-puncture approach was adopted because of technically unfavourable vascular anatomy for superselective embolization; in one case (cystic artery pseudoaneurysm), an endovascular embolization would entail a high risk of gallbladder ischemia because of its terminal arterial supply. Technical success was defined disappearance of bleeding signs at last arteriography; clinical success was considered stabilization and/or improvement of hemoglobin values and arterial pressure without additional interventions.

Results: Both technical and clinical successes were obtained in 100% of the cases without major complications. No needle occlusion occurred during glue injection.

Conclusions: In this study percutaneous US-guided embolization by direct puncture was a safe and effective approach to manage acute bleedings; it could be considered as an alternative in patients with unfavourable vascular anatomy for the standard catheter-directed endovascular embolization.

Keywords: Direct puncture; Embolization; Glue; Hemorrhage; Ultrasound-guidance.

MeSH terms

  • Arteries
  • Embolization, Therapeutic*
  • Hemoglobins
  • Hemorrhage* / diagnostic imaging
  • Hemorrhage* / etiology
  • Hemorrhage* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Hemoglobins