Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are a cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Our knowledge of these DAMPs remains incomplete. Here, we report serum peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx1) as a novel DAMP for AKI. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury instigated AKI with concurrent increases in serum Prdx1 and reductions of Prdx1 expression in kidney tubular epithelial cells. Genetic knockout of Prdx1 or use of a Prdx1-neutralizing antibody protected mice from AKI and this protection was impaired by introduction of recombinant Prdx1 (rPrdx1). Mechanistically, lipopolysaccharide increased serum and kidney proinflammatory cytokines, macrophage infiltration, and the content of M1 macrophages. All these events were suppressed in Prdx1-/- mice and renewed upon introduction of rPrdx1. In primary peritoneal macrophages, rPrdx1 induced M1 polarization, activated macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) signaling, and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production. Prdx1 interacted with Mincle to initiate acute kidney inflammation. Of note, rPrdx1 upregulated Mincle and the spleen tyrosine kinase Syk system in the primary peritoneal macrophages, while knockdown of Mincle abolished the increase in activated Syk. Additionally, rPrdx1 treatment enhanced the downstream events of Syk, including transcription factor NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, serum Prdx1 was found to be increased in patients with AKI; the increase of which was associated with kidney function decline and inflammatory biomarkers in patient serum. Thus, kidney-derived serum Prdx1 contributes to AKI at least in part by activating Mincle signaling and downstream pathways.
Keywords: Mincle; acute kidney injury; damage-associated molecular pattern; inflammation; peroxiredoxin 1.
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