Risk factors for cancer of the testis in young men

Int J Cancer. 1979 May 15;23(5):598-602. doi: 10.1002/ijc.2910230503.


An individual matched case-control study of testis cancer in 131 men under age 40 was conducted to investigate antecedent risk factors including events during prenatal life. Ten patients were born with an undescended testis compared to only two controls (p less equal to 0.02), a previously reported risk factor. Two new risk factors were uncovered: six patients-mothers received hormones during the index pregnancy compared to only one control-mother, and eight patient-mothers and two control-mothers reported excessive nausea as a complication of the index pregnancy. A hypothesis linking these three factors is presented: viz, that a major risk factor for testis cancer is a relative excess of certain hormones (in particular estrogen) at the time of differentiation of the testes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Breast Feeding
  • Cryptorchidism / complications
  • Cryptorchidism / genetics
  • Estradiol Congeners / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Fetus / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Maternal Age
  • Obstetric Labor, Premature
  • Parity
  • Paternal Age
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy
  • Risk
  • Smoking
  • Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Testicular Neoplasms / etiology


  • Estradiol Congeners