Image-Guided Proton Therapy: A Comprehensive Review

Cancers (Basel). 2023 Apr 29;15(9):2555. doi: 10.3390/cancers15092555.


Image guidance for radiation therapy can improve the accuracy of the delivery of radiation, leading to an improved therapeutic ratio. Proton radiation is able to deliver a highly conformal dose to a target due to its advantageous dosimetric properties, including the Bragg peak. Proton therapy established the standard for daily image guidance as a means of minimizing uncertainties associated with proton treatment. With the increasing adoption of the use of proton therapy over time, image guidance systems for this modality have been changing. The unique properties of proton radiation present a number of differences in image guidance from photon therapy. This paper describes CT and MRI-based simulation and methods of daily image guidance. Developments in dose-guided radiation, upright treatment, and FLASH RT are discussed as well.

Keywords: FLASH; MRI guided PT; dose guided RT; image guidance; proton therapy; surface guided PT; upright proton treatment.

Publication types

  • Review