Background and objective: Tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) has long been used to effectively treat lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). Although numerous studies have concentrated on TNS, its mechanism of action remains elusive. This review aimed to concentrate on the mechanism of action of TNS against LUTD.
Materials and methods: A literature search was performed in PubMed on October 31, 2022. In this study, we introduced the application of TNS for LUTD, summarized different methods used in exploring the mechanism of TNS, and discussed the next direction to investigate the mechanism of TNS.
Results and conclusions: In this review, 97 studies, including clinical studies, animal experiments, and reviews, were used. TNS is an effective treatment for LUTD. The study of its mechanisms primarily concentrated on the central nervous system, tibial nerve pathway, receptors, and TNS frequency. More advanced equipment will be used in human experiments to investigate the central mechanism, and diverse animal experiments will be performed to explore the peripheral mechanism and parameters of TNS in the future.
Keywords: Lower urinary tract dysfunction; mechanism of action; therapy; tibial nerve stimulation.
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