Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials

Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2024 Feb;40(2):e3655. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.3655. Epub 2023 May 14.

Abstract

Dysbiosis or imbalance of microbes in the gut has been associated with susceptibility and progression of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The present systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on fasting blood glucose (FBG), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide, and insulin requirements in T1DM patients. A systematic search for trials published up to October 2022 was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and the Central Cochrane Library. Random effect models were used to synthesise quantitative data by STATA14 . After the evaluation of 258 identified entries, five randomised controlled trials (n = 356; mean age = 11.7 years old) were included. The pooled effect size showed that FBG decreased following probiotic supplementation (weighted mean difference = -31.24 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval = -45.65, -16.83; p < 0.001), however, there was no significant improvement in serum HbA1c, C-peptide, and insulin requirements. Probiotic supplementation could be a complementary therapeutic strategy in T1DM. The evidence is limited; therefore, it is crucial to conduct more trials.

Keywords: blood glucose; diabetes mellitus, type 1; glycated haemoglobin A; meta-analysis; probiotics; systematic review.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • C-Peptide
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / drug therapy
  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • Humans
  • Insulin
  • Insulin, Regular, Human
  • Prebiotics
  • Probiotics* / therapeutic use
  • Synbiotics*

Substances

  • Prebiotics
  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • C-Peptide
  • Insulin
  • Insulin, Regular, Human