Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Immune Reactions Against Pig Decellularized Bronchi Engrafted into Rat Tracheal Defects

Organogenesis. 2023 Dec 31;19(1):2212582. doi: 10.1080/15476278.2023.2212582.


Decellularized scaffolds are promising biomaterials for tissue and organ reconstruction; however, strategies to effectively suppress the host immune responses toward these implants, particularly those without chemical crosslinking, remain warranted. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells is effective against immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. Herein, we investigated the effect of isogeneic abdominal adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (ADMSCs) on xenogeneic biomaterial-induced immunoreactions. Peripheral bronchi from pigs, decellularized using a detergent enzymatic method, were engrafted onto tracheal defects of Brown Norway (BN) rats. BN rats were implanted with native pig bronchi (Xenograft group), decellularized pig bronchi (Decellularized Xenograft), or Decellularized Xenograft and ADMSCs (Decellularized Xenograft+ADMSC group). In the latter group, ADMSCs were injected intravenously immediately post implantation. Harvested graft implants were assessed histologically and immunohistochemically. We found that acute rejections were milder in the Decellularized Xenograft and Decellularized Xenograft+ADMSC groups than in the Xenograft group. Mild inflammatory cell infiltration and reduced collagen deposition were observed in the Decellularized Xenograft+ADMSC group. Additionally, ADMSC administration decreased CD8+ lymphocyte counts but increased CD163+ cell counts. In the Decellularized Xenograft+ADMSC group, serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and IL-10 were elevated and tissue deposition of IgM and IgG was low. The significant immunosuppressive effects of ADMSCs illustrate their potential use as immunosuppressive agents for xenogeneic biomaterial-based implants.

Keywords: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; biocompatible materials; decellularization; immunosuppression; tissue engineering; xenotransplantation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue
  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Bronchi
  • Humans
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred BN
  • Swine
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A*


  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Biocompatible Materials

Grants and funding

The study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (grant number 15H04944 to T.T.; grant number 20K08983 to H.W.).