(1) Background: The adjustable trans-obturator male system (ATOMS) is a surgical device developed to treat post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) after prostate cancer treatment. We review the current literature on this anti-incontinence device with the intention of assessing the effectiveness, safety and duration of the silicone-covered scrotal port (SSP) ATOMS, the only generation of the device that is currently available. (2) Material and Methods: Non-systematic literature review is performed. Forty-eight full-text articles are assessed for eligibility. Case reports, expert opinions or commentaries without specific data reported (n = 6), studies with patients who underwent intervention before 2014 (IP or SP ATOMS; n = 10), and studies with incontinence after transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P; n = 2) are excluded for analysis. Thirty studies with SSP ATOMS are included in a qualitative synthesis that incorporates systematic reviews (n = 3), articles partially overlapping with other previously published studies (e.g., follow-up or series updates; n = 9), and studies focusing on specific populations (n = 8). Only articles revealing outcomes of SSP ATOMS were included in the quantitative synthesis of results (n = 10). (3) Results: the pooled data of 1515 patients from the 10 studies with SSP ATOMS confirmed very satisfactory results with this device after adjustment: dry rate: 63-82%, improved rate: 85-100%, complication rate: 7-33%, device infection rate: 2.7-6.2% and explant rate: 0-19%. The durability of the device is reassuring, with 89% of devices in place 5 years after implantation. (4) Conclusion: Despite the absence of randomized controlled studies, the literature findings confirm results of SSP ATOMS appear equivalent to those of artificial urinary sphincters (AUSs) in terms of continence, satisfaction and complications, but with a lower rate of revision in the long-term. A prospective study identified that patients with daily pad test results <900 mL and a Male Stress Incontinence Grading Scale (MSIGS) of not 4 (i.e., early and persistent stream or urine loss) are the best candidates. Future studies centered on the elder population at higher risk of impaired cognitive ability and in patients including radiation as prostate cancer treatment are needed.
Keywords: adjustable trans-obturator male system; artificial urinary sphincter; effectiveness; post-prostatectomy incontinence; prostate cancer; safety.