In the present study, we determined the developmental toxicity of endosulfan at an elevated ambient temperature using the zebrafish animal model. Zebrafish embryos of various developmental stages were exposed to endosulfan through E3 medium, raised under two selected temperature conditions (28.5 °C and an elevated temperature of 35 °C), and monitored under the microscope. Zebrafish embryos of very early developmental stages (cellular cleavage stages, such as the 64-cell stage) were highly sensitive to the elevated temperature as 37.5% died and 47.5% developed into amorphous type, while only 15.0% of embryos developed as normal embryos without malformation. Zebrafish embryos that were exposed concurrently to endosulfan and an elevated temperature showed stronger developmental defects (arrested epiboly progress, shortened body length, curved trunk) compared to the embryos exposed to either endosulfan or an elevated temperature. The brain structure of the embryos that concurrently were exposed to the elevated temperature and endosulfan was either incompletely developed or malformed. Furthermore, the stress-implicated genes hsp70, p16, and smp30 regulations were synergistically affected by endosulfan treatment under the elevated thermal condition. Overall, the elevated ambient temperature synergistically enhanced the developmental toxicity of endosulfan in zebrafish embryos.
Keywords: Embryonic alteration; Endosulfan; HSP; Temperature; Zebrafish.
© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.