A novel factor that stimulates DNA polymerase alpha activity on poly(dA) X oligo(dT) has been identified and partially purified from mouse FM3A cells. The assay system for the factor contained poly(ethylene glycol) 6000. The activities of DNA polymerase alpha on poly(dA) X oligo(dT) in the presence and absence of the stimulating factor were increased greatly by the addition of poly(ethylene glycol). Stimulation by the factor was observed at all the primer to template ratios tested from 0.01 to 0.3. The highest activity was observed at the ratio of 0.05, corresponding to about 3.3 primers on one template in the presence of the factor. The concentration of DNA polymerase alpha used in the assay affected the stimulation by the factor, and the stimulation became more prominent at concentrations of the enzyme lower than 0.04 unit per assay. The stimulating factor lowered the Km value of DNA polymerase alpha for the template-primer, though they had no effect on the Km value for dTTP substrate. The results of product analysis suggested that the stimulation by the factor is mainly due to the increase in the initiation frequency of DNA synthesis from the primers. The stimulating factor specifically stimulated DNA polymerase alpha but not DNA polymerases beta and gamma. Furthermore, the factor formed a complex with DNA polymerase alpha under a certain condition.