Molecular Similarities and Differences between Canine Prostate Cancer and Human Prostate Cancer Variants

Biomedicines. 2023 Apr 5;11(4):1100. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines11041100.


Dogs are one of few species that naturally develop prostate cancer (PCa), which clinically resembles aggressive, advanced PCa in humans. Moreover, PCa-tumor samples from dogs are often androgen receptor (AR)-negative and may enrich our understanding of AR-indifferent PCa in humans, a highly lethal subset of PCa for which few treatment modalities are available This narrative review discusses the molecular similarities between dog PCa and specific human-PCa variants, underscoring the possibilities of using the dog as a novel pre-clinical animal model for human PCa, resulting in new therapies and diagnostics that may benefit both species.

Keywords: androgen receptor; androgen-indifferent; androgen-receptor indifferent; castration-resistant prostate cancer; dog; prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Review