From face-to-face to online: Teachers' perceived experiences in online distance teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic

Comput Educ. 2023 Aug:201:104831. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2023.104831. Epub 2023 May 9.


The urgent shift to online distance teaching and learning during the Covid-19 pandemic presented teachers with unique pedagogical, technological, and psychological challenges. The aim of this study was to map the main positive and negative experiences of teachers during this transition, as well as to examine intra- and interpersonal factors that affected teachers' ability to cope effectively with the challenges of online distance teaching. We used a mixed-method approach that combined qualitative (interviews) and quantitative (questionnaires) analyses. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach, specifically a bottom-up analysis, which led to the identification of five primary categories reflecting teachers' main concerns in online distance teaching (i.e., social, emotional, cognitive, pedagogical, and system support. The two most prominent categories were pedagogy and emotions, illustrating their centrality in teachers' experiences. A regression analysis of the questionnaires' data revealed that the two main variables which predicted both positive and negative experiences in online distance teaching were self-efficacy and teachers' attitudes towards technology integration in teaching. Findings of this study allow formulation of guidelines to promote factors related to positive experiences in online distance teaching.

Keywords: 21st century abilities; Distance education and online learning; Human-computer interface; Teacher professional development; Teaching/learning strategies.