Different habitats harbor different microbial communities with elusive assembly mechanisms. This study comprehensively investigated the global assembly mechanisms of microbial communities and effects of community-internal influencing factors using the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) data set. We found that deterministic and stochastic processes contribute approximately equally to global microbial community assembly, and, specifically, deterministic processes generally play a major role in free-living and plant-associated (but not plant corpus) environments, while stochastic processes are the major contributor in animal-associated environments. In contrast with the assembly of microorganisms, the assembly of functional genes, predicted from PICRUSt, is mainly attributed to deterministic processes in all microbial communities. The sink and source microbial communities are normally assembled using similar mechanisms, and the core microorganisms are specific to different environment types. On a global scale, deterministic processes are positively related to the community alpha diversity, microbial interaction degree and bacterial predatory-specific gene abundance. Our analysis provides a panoramic picture and regularities of global and environment-typical microbial community assemblies. IMPORTANCE With the development of sequencing technologies, the research topic of microbial ecology has evolved from the analysis of community composition to community assembly, including the relative contribution of deterministic and stochastic processes for the formation and maintenance of community diversity. Many studies have reported the microbial assembly mechanisms in various habitats, but the assembly regularities of global microbial communities remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed the EMP data set using a combined pipeline to explore the assembly mechanisms of global microbial communities, microbial sources to construct communities, core microbes in different environment types, and community-internal factors influencing assembly. The results provide a panoramic picture and rules of global and environment-typical microbial community assemblies, which enhances our understandings of the mechanisms globally controlling community diversity and species coexistence.
Keywords: community-internal influences; core microorganisms; deterministic and stochastic processes; earth microbiome project; microbial community assembly; source track.