Safety of SGLT2i with regard to bone and mineral metabolism in patients with CKD

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2023 Jul 1;32(4):324-329. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000887. Epub 2023 May 9.

Abstract

Purpose of review: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) represent a relatively new class of oral glucose-lowering agents that reduce adverse cardiovascular and kidney outcomes among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Emerging evidence suggests that SGLT2i may also affect bone and mineral metabolism. This review analyzes recent evidence on the safety of SGLT2i with respect to bone and mineral metabolism in people with CKD, and discusses potential underlying mechanisms and clinical implications.

Recent findings: Recent studies have documented the beneficial effects of SGLT2i on cardiovascular and renal outcomes among individuals with CKD. SGLT2i may alter renal tubular phosphate reabsorption and are associated with increased serum concentrations of phosphate, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), parathyroid hormone (PTH), decreased 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, as well as increased bone turnover. Clinical trials have not demonstrated an increased risk of bone fracture associated with SGLT2i use among patients with CKD with or without diabetes mellitus.

Summary: Although SGLT2i are associated with abnormalities of bone and mineral metabolism, they have not been linked to a higher risk of fracture among patients with CKD. More research is needed on the association between SGLT2i and fracture risk in this population.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bone and Bones
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Fractures, Bone* / etiology
  • Fractures, Bone* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Kidney
  • Minerals
  • Phosphates
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / drug therapy

Substances

  • Phosphates
  • Minerals