Factors associated with breast cancer screening services use among women in the United States: An application of the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use

Prev Med. 2023 Aug:173:107545. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2023.107545. Epub 2023 May 16.


This study applied Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to examine predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with adherence to the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines for breast cancer screening (BCS). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors of BCS services utilization among 5484 women aged 50-74 from the 2019 National Health Interview Survey. Predisposing factors significantly associated with use of BCS services were: being a Black (odds-ratios [OR]:1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.14-1.95) or a Hispanic woman (OR:2.25; CI:1.62-3.12); being married/partnered (OR:1.32, CI:1.12-1.55); having more than a bachelor's degree (OR: 1.62; CI:1.14-2.30); and living in rural areas (OR:0.72; CI:0.59-0.92). Enabling factors were: poverty level [≤138% federal poverty level (FPL) (OR:0.74; CI:0.56-0.97), >138-250% FPL (OR:0.77; CI:0.61-0.97), and > 250-400% FPL (OR:0.77; CI:0.63-0.94)]; being uninsured (OR:0.29; CI:0.21-0.40); having a usual source of care at a physician office (OR:7.27; CI:4.99-10.57) or other healthcare facilities (OR:4.12; CI:2.68-6.33); and previous breast examination by a healthcare professional (OR:2.10; CI:1.68-2.64). Need factors were: having fair/poor health (OR:0.76; CI:0.59-0.97) and being underweight (OR:0.46; CI:0.30-0.71). Disparities in BCS services utilization by Black and Hispanic women have been reduced. Disparities still exist for uninsured and financially restrained women living in rural areas. Addressing disparities in BCS uptake and improving adherence to USPSTF guidelines may require revamping policies that address disparities in enabling resources, such as health insurance, income, and health care access.

Keywords: Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use; Breast cancer screening; National Health Interview Survey; United States.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Breast Neoplasms* / prevention & control
  • Early Detection of Cancer
  • Female
  • Health Services
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Humans
  • Insurance, Health
  • Preventive Health Services
  • United States