Pre-Heart Failure Longitudinal Change in a Hispanic/Latino Population-Based Study: Insights From the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos

JACC Heart Fail. 2023 Aug;11(8 Pt 1):946-957. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2023.04.008. Epub 2023 May 17.


Background: Pre-heart failure (pre-HF) is an entity known to progress to symptomatic heart failure (HF).

Objectives: This study aimed to characterize pre-HF prevalence and incidence among Hispanics/Latinos.

Methods: The Echo-SOL (Echocardiographic Study of Latinos) assessed cardiac parameters on 1,643 Hispanics/Latinos at baseline and 4.3 years later. Prevalent pre-HF was defined as the presence of any abnormal cardiac parameter (left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction <50%; absolute global longitudinal strain <15%; grade 1 or more diastolic dysfunction; LV mass index >115 g/m2 for men, >95 g/m2 for women; or relative wall thickness >0.42). Incident pre-HF was defined among those without pre-HF at baseline. Sampling weights and survey statistics were used.

Results: Among this study population (mean age: 56.4 years; 56% female), HF risk factors, including prevalence of hypertension and diabetes, worsened during follow-up. Significant worsening of all cardiac parameters (except LV ejection fraction) was evidenced from baseline to follow-up (all P < 0.01). Overall, the prevalence of pre-HF was 66.7% at baseline and the incidence of pre-HF during follow-up was 66.3%. Prevalent and incident pre-HF were seen more with increasing baseline HF risk factor burden as well as with older age. In addition, increasing the number of HF risk factors increased the risk of prevalence of pre-HF and incidence of pre-HF (adjusted OR: 1.36 [95% CI: 1.16-1.58], and adjusted OR: 1.29 [95% CI: 1.00-1.68], respectively). Prevalent pre-HF was associated with incident clinical HF (HR: 10.9 [95% CI: 2.1-56.3]).

Conclusions: Hispanics/Latinos exhibited significant worsening of pre-HF characteristics over time. Prevalence and incidence of pre-HF are high and are associated with increasing HF risk factor burden and with incidence of cardiac events.

Keywords: Hispanics; diastolic dysfunction; echocardiography; left ventricular remodeling; systolic dysfunction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Echocardiography
  • Female
  • Heart Failure* / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Failure* / epidemiology
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke Volume
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left*
  • Ventricular Function, Left