Our goal in this manuscript is to advance the assessment and treatment of monkey species in neuroscience research. We hope to begin a discussion and establish baseline data on how complications are identified and treated. We surveyed the neuroscience research community working with monkeys and compiled responses to questions about investigator demographics, assessment of animal wellbeing, treatment choices, and approaches to mitigate risks associated with CNS procedures and promote monkey health and wellbeing. The majority of the respondents had worked with nonhuman primates (NHP) for over 15 y. Identification of procedure-related complications and efficacy of treatment generally rely on common behavioral indices. Treatments for localized inflammatory responses are generally successful, whereas the treatment success for meningitis or meningoencephalitis, abscesses, and hemorrhagic stroke are less successful. Behavioral signs of pain are treated successfully with NSAIDs and opioids. Our future plans are to collate treatment protocols and develop best practices that can be shared across the neuroscience community to improve treatment success rates and animal welfare and therefore science. Human protocols can be used to develop best practices, assess outcomes, and promote further refinements in treatment practices for monkeys to enhance research outcomes.