Impact of prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump on early outcomes in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass

Int J Cardiol. 2023 Aug 15;385:8-15. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2023.05.033. Epub 2023 May 18.


Objective: Our aim was to analyse whether prophylactic preoperative intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) improves outcomes in hemodynamically stable patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤30%) undergoing elective myocardial revascularization (CABG) using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Secondary aim was to identify the predictors for low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS).

Methods: Prospectively collected data of 207 consecutive patients with LVEF ≤30% undergoing elective isolated CABG with CPB from 01/2009 to 12/2019, 136 with and 71 patients without IABP, were retrieved retrospectively. Patients with prophylactic IABP were matched 1:1 with patients without IABP by a propensity score matching. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of postoperative LCOS in the propensity-matched cohort. P value ≤0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Reduced postoperative LCOS (9.9% vs. 26.8%, P = 0.017) was observed in patients receiving prophylactic IABP. Stepwise logistic regression identified preoperative IABP as preventive factor for postoperative LCOS [Odds Ratio (OR) 0.19,95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.06-0.55, P = 0.004]. The need of vasoactive and inotropic support was lower in patients with prophylactic IABP at 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery (12.3 [8.2-18.6] vs. 22.2 [14.4-28.8], P < 0.001, 7.7 [3.3-12.3] vs.16.3 [8.9-27.8], P < 0.001 and 2.4 [0-7] vs. 11.5 [3.1-26], P < 0.001, respectively). The patients in both groups did not differ in terms of in-hospital mortality (7.0% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.763). There were no major IABP-related complications.

Conclusions: Elective patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30% undergoing CABG with CPB and prophylactic IABP insertion had less low cardiac output syndrome and similar in-hospital mortality.

Keywords: Cardiopulmonary bypass; Coronary artery bypass grafting; Low cardiac output syndrome; Prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump; Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Output, Low* / etiology
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass / adverse effects
  • Coronary Artery Bypass
  • Humans
  • Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping
  • Length of Stay
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stroke Volume
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left* / etiology
  • Ventricular Function, Left