Twelve tips for the pre-brief to promote psychological safety in simulation-based education

Med Teach. 2023 May 21;1-8. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2023.2214305. Online ahead of print.


It is recognised that simulation-based education can be stressful, and this can impact negatively on learning. A fundamental aspect of facilitating simulation is creating a safe educational environment. Edmondson's seminal work on creating psychological safety among interpersonal teams has been embraced by the healthcare simulation community. Psychological safety is an underpinning philosophy for creating simulation experiences in which learners can develop within a stimulating and challenging yet supportive social atmosphere. Through careful design and thoughtful delivery, the introductory phase of simulation, the pre-briefing, can effectively prepare learners for simulation, reduce learner anxiety, and promote psychological safety, to enhance learning experiences. These twelve tips provide guidance for conducting a pre-brief and promoting a psychologically safe environment for simulation-based education.

Keywords: Simulation-based education; pre-brief; psychological safety.