2023 HRS expert consensus statement on the management of arrhythmias during pregnancy

Heart Rhythm. 2023 Oct;20(10):e175-e264. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2023.05.017. Epub 2023 May 19.


This international multidisciplinary expert consensus statement is intended to provide comprehensive guidance that can be referenced at the point of care to cardiac electrophysiologists, cardiologists, and other health care professionals, on the management of cardiac arrhythmias in pregnant patients and in fetuses. This document covers general concepts related to arrhythmias, including both brady- and tachyarrhythmias, in both the patient and the fetus during pregnancy. Recommendations are provided for optimal approaches to diagnosis and evaluation of arrhythmias; selection of invasive and noninvasive options for treatment of arrhythmias; and disease- and patient-specific considerations when risk stratifying, diagnosing, and treating arrhythmias in pregnant patients and fetuses. Gaps in knowledge and new directions for future research are also identified.

Keywords: Antiarrhythmic; Atrial fibrillation; Bradyarrhythmia; Fetal arrhythmia; Inherited arrhythmia syndrome; Maternal arrhythmia; Pregnancy; Supraventricular tachycardia; Tachyarrhythmia; Ventricular tachycardia.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac* / drug therapy
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac* / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Tachycardia / diagnosis


  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents