Observational studies have shown that vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of COVID-19 infection, yet little is known about the shared genomic architectures between them. Leveraging large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics, we investigated the genetic correlation and causal relationship between genetically determined vitamin D and COVID-19 using linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses, and conducted a cross-trait GWAS meta-analysis to identify the overlapping susceptibility loci of them. We observed a significant genetic correlation between genetically predicted vitamin D and COVID-19 (rg = -0.143, p = 0.011), and the risk of COVID-19 infection would decrease by 6% for every 0.76 nmol L-1 increase of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in generalized MR (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99, p = 0.019). We identified rs4971066 (EFNA1) as a risk locus for the joint phenotype of vitamin D and COVID-19. In conclusion, genetically determined vitamin D is associated with COVID-19. Increased levels of serum 25OHD concentration may benefit the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19; Mendelian randomization; genome-wide association study; molecular docking; vitamin D.
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