The aim of this study was to analyze whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine reduces mortality in patients with moderate or severe COVID-19 disease requiring oxygen therapy. A retrospective cohort study, with data from 148 hospitals in both Spain (111 hospitals) and Argentina (37 hospitals), was conducted. We evaluated hospitalized patients for COVID-19 older than 18 years with oxygen requirements. Vaccine protection against death was assessed through a multivariable logistic regression and propensity score matching. We also performed a subgroup analysis according to vaccine type. The adjusted model was used to determine the population attributable risk. Between January 2020 and May 2022, we evaluated 21,479 COVID-19 hospitalized patients with oxygen requirements. Of these, 338 (1.5%) patients received a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and 379 (1.8%) were fully vaccinated. In vaccinated patients, mortality was 20.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.9-24), compared to 19.5% (95% CI: 19-20) in unvaccinated patients, resulting in a crude odds ratio (OR) of 1.07 (95% CI: 0.89-1.29; p = 0.41). However, after considering the multiple comorbidities in the vaccinated group, the adjusted OR was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56-0.95; p = 0.02) with a population attributable risk reduction of 4.3% (95% CI: 1-5). The higher risk reduction for mortality was with messenger RNA (mRNA) BNT162b2 (Pfizer) (OR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23-0.59; p < 0.01), ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) (OR 0.42; 95% CI: 0.20-0.86; p = 0.02), and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) (OR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.41-1.12; p = 0.13), and lower with Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik) (OR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.6-1.45; p = 0.76). COVID-19 vaccines significantly reduce the probability of death in patients suffering from a moderate or severe disease (oxygen therapy).
Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccines; hospitalization; oxygen therapy.
© 2023 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.