IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas with glioblastoma molecular features: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Brain Tumor Pathol. 2023 Jul;40(3):143-157. doi: 10.1007/s10014-023-00463-8. Epub 2023 May 22.


The WHO 2021 classification defines IDH wild type (IDHw) histologically lower-grade glioma (hLGG) as molecular glioblastoma (mGBM) if TERT promoter mutation (pTERTm), EGFR amplification or chromosome seven gain and ten loss aberrations are indicated. We systematically reviewed articles of IDHw hLGGs studies (49 studies, N = 3748) and meta-analyzed mGBM prevalence and overall survival (OS) according to the PRISMA statement. mGBM rates in IDHw hLGG were significantly lower in Asian regions (43.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI: 35.8-52.0]) when compared to non-Asian regions (65.0%, [CI: 52.9-75.4]) (P = 0.005) and were significantly lower in fresh-frozen specimen when compared to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples (P = 0.015). IDHw hLGGs without pTERTm rarely expressed other molecular markers in Asian studies when compared to non-Asian studies. Patients with mGBM had significantly longer OS times when compared to histological GBM (hGBM) (pooled hazard ratio (pHR) 0.824, [CI: 0.694-0.98], P = 0.03)). In patients with mGBM, histological grade was a significant prognostic factor (pHR 1.633, [CI: 1.09-2.447], P = 0.018), as was age (P = 0.001) and surgical extent (P = 0.018). Although bias risk across studies was moderate, mGBM with grade II histology showed better OS rates when compared to hGBM.

Keywords: IDH wild type; Lower-grade glioma; Molecular glioblastoma; TERT promoter mutation.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Glioblastoma* / genetics
  • Glioblastoma* / pathology
  • Glioma* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Mutation
  • Prognosis
  • Telomerase* / genetics


  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • Telomerase