Effect of Adapted Mindfulness Training in Participants With Elevated Office Blood Pressure: The MB-BP Study: A Randomized Clinical Trial

J Am Heart Assoc. 2023 Jun 6;12(11):e028712. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.122.028712. Epub 2023 May 23.


Background Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite availability of effective lifestyle and medication treatments, blood pressure (BP) is poorly controlled in the United States. Mindfulness training may offer a novel approach to improve BP control. The objective was to evaluate the effects of Mindfulness-Based Blood Pressure Reduction (MB-BP) versus enhanced usual care control on unattended office systolic BP. Methods and Results Methods included a parallel-group phase 2 randomized clinical trial conducted from June 2017 to November 2020. Follow-up time was 6 months. Outcome assessors and data analyst were blinded to group allocation. Participants had elevated unattended office BP (≥120/80 mm Hg). We randomized 201 participants to MB-BP (n=101) or enhanced usual care control (n=100). MB-BP is a mindfulness-based program adapted for elevated BP. Loss-to-follow-up was 17.4%. The primary outcome was change in unattended office systolic BP at 6 months. A total of 201 participants (58.7% women; 81.1% non-Hispanic White race and ethnicity; mean age, 59.5 years) were randomized. Results showed that MB-BP was associated with a 5.9-mm Hg reduction (95% CI, -9.1 to -2.8 mm Hg) in systolic BP from baseline and outperformed the control group by 4.5 mm Hg at 6 months (95% CI, -9.0 to -0.1 mm Hg) in prespecified analyses. Plausible mechanisms with evidence to be impacted by MB-BP versus control were sedentary activity (-350.8 sitting min/wk [95% CI, -636.5 to -65.1] sitting min/wk), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (0.32 score [95% CI, -0.04 to 0.67]), and mindfulness (7.3 score [95% CI, 3.0-11.6]). Conclusions A mindfulness-based program adapted for individuals with elevated BP showed clinically relevant reductions in systolic BP compared with enhanced usual care. Mindfulness training may be a useful approach to improve BP. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT03256890 and NCT03859076.

Keywords: blood pressure; hypertension; mindfulness; randomized clinical trial.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / drug therapy
  • Hypertension* / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mindfulness*


  • Antihypertensive Agents

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT03859076
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT03256890