Analysis of mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA differential expression in prediabetes/type 2 diabetes mellitus patients as potential players in insulin resistance

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2023 May 8;14:1131171. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1131171. eCollection 2023.


Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major global health concern. It usually develops gradually and is frequently preceded by undetectable pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM) stage. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel set of seven candidate genes associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) and pre-DM, followed by their experimental validation in patients' serum samples.

Methods: We used the bioinformatics tools and through a two-step process, we first identified and verified two mRNA candidate genes linked to insulin resistance molecular pathogenesis. Second, we identified a non-coding RNAs related to the selected mRNAs and implicated in the insulin resistance molecular pathways followed by pilot study for the RNA panel differential expression in 66 patients with T2DM, 49 individuals with prediabetes and 45 matched controls using real time PCR.

Results: The levels of expression of TMEM173 and CHUK mRNAs, hsa-miR (-611, -5192, and -1976) miRNAs gradually increased from the healthy control group to the prediabetic group, reaching their maximum levels in the T2DM group (p <10-3), whereas the levels of expression of RP4-605O3.4 and AC074117.2 lncRNAs declined gradually from the healthy control group to the prediabetic group, reaching their lowest levels in the T2DM group (p <10-3). TMEM173, CHUK mRNAs, hsa_miR (-611 & -1976) and RP4-605O3.4 lncRNA were useful in distinguishing insulin resistant from insulin sensitive groups. miR_611 together with RP4-605O3.4 exhibited significant difference in good versus poor glycemic control groups.

Discussion: The presented study provides an insight about this RNA based STING/NOD/IR associated panel that could be used for PreDM-T2DM diagnosis and also as a therapeutic target based on the differences of its expression level in the pre-DM and T2DM stages.

Keywords: bioinformatics; biomarkers; insulin resistance; non-coding RNA; pre-diabetes; type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Resistance* / genetics
  • MicroRNAs* / genetics
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prediabetic State* / genetics
  • RNA, Long Noncoding* / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics


  • MicroRNAs
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • Insulin
  • RNA, Messenger

Grant support

This study received fund from the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egypt, JESOR call 2019 ID 5090.