The adhesion GPCRs CELSR1-3 and LPHN3 engage G proteins via distinct activation mechanisms

Cell Rep. 2023 May 23;42(6):112552. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.112552. Online ahead of print.


Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are a large GPCR class that direct diverse fundamental biological processes. One prominent mechanism for aGPCR agonism involves autoproteolytic cleavage, which generates an activating, membrane-proximal tethered agonist (TA). How universal this mechanism is for all aGPCRs is unclear. Here, we investigate G protein induction principles of aGPCRs using mammalian latrophilin 3 (LPHN3) and cadherin EGF LAG-repeat 7-transmembrane receptors 1-3 (CELSR1-3), members of two aGPCR families conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. LPHNs and CELSRs mediate fundamental aspects of brain development, yet CELSR signaling mechanisms are unknown. We find that CELSR1 and CELSR3 are cleavage deficient, while CELSR2 is efficiently cleaved. Despite differential autoproteolysis, CELSR1-3 all engage GαS, and CELSR1 or CELSR3 TA point mutants retain GαS coupling activity. CELSR2 autoproteolysis enhances GαS coupling, yet acute TA exposure alone is insufficient. These studies support that aGPCRs signal via multiple paradigms and provide insights into CELSR biological function.

Keywords: CP: Cell biology; adhesion GPCR; autoproteolysis; cell adhesion; signal transduction.