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, 247 (3), 297-325

The Relationship of Corpus Callosum Connections to Electrical Stimulation Maps of Motor, Supplementary Motor, and the Frontal Eye Fields in Owl Monkeys

The Relationship of Corpus Callosum Connections to Electrical Stimulation Maps of Motor, Supplementary Motor, and the Frontal Eye Fields in Owl Monkeys

H J Gould 3rd et al. J Comp Neurol.

Abstract

Microstimulation and anatomical techniques were combined to reveal the organization and interhemispheric connections of motor cortex in owl monkeys. Movements of body parts were elicited with low levels of electrical stimulation delivered with microelectrodes over a large region of precentral cortex. Movements were produced from three physiologically defined cortical regions. The largest region, the primary motor field, M-I, occupied a 4-6-mm strip of cortex immediately rostral to area 3a. M-I represented body movements from tail to mouth in a grossly somatotopic mediolateral cortical sequence. Specific movements were usually represented at more than one location, and often at as many as six or seven separate locations within M-I. Although movements related to adjoining joints typically were elicited from adjacent cortical sites, movements of nonadjacent joints also were produced by stimulation of adjacent sites. Thus, both sites producing wrist movements and sites producing shoulder movements were found next to sites producing digit movements. Movements of digits of the forepaw were evoked at several locations including a location rostral to or within cortex representing the face. Overall, the somatotopic organization did not completely correspond to previous concepts of M-I in that it was neither a single topographic representation, nor two serial or mirror symmetric representations, nor a "nesting about joints" representation. Instead, M-I is more adequately described as a mosaic of regions, each representing movements of a restricted part of the body, with multiple representations of movements that tend to be somatotopically related. A second pattern of representation of body movements, the supplementary motor area (SMA), adjoined the rostromedial border of M-I. SMA represented the body from tail to face in a caudorostral cortical sequence, with the most rostral portion related to eye movements. Movements elicited by near-threshold levels of current were often restricted to a single muscle or joint, as in M-I, and the same movement was sometimes multiply represented. Typically, more intense stimulating currents were required for evoking movements in SMA than in M-I. A third motor region, the frontal eye field (FEF), bordered the representation of eyelids and face in M-I. Eye movements elicited from this cortex consisted of rapid horizontal and downward deviation of gaze into the contralateral visual hemifield.

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