Do PCI Facility Openings and Closures Affect AMI Outcomes Differently in High- vs Average-Capacity Markets?

JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2023 May 22;16(10):1129-1140. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2023.02.010. Epub 2023 May 3.


Background: Disparities in access to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with acute myocardial infarction may result from openings and closures of PCI-providing hospitals, potentially leading to low hospital PCI volume, which is associated with poor outcomes.

Objectives: The authors sought to determine whether openings and closures of PCI hospitals have differentially impacted patient health outcomes in high- vs average-capacity PCI markets.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the authors identified PCI hospital availability within a 15-minute driving time of zip code communities. The authors categorized communities by baseline PCI capacity and identified changes in outcomes associated with PCI-providing hospital openings and closures using community fixed-effects regression models.

Results: From 2006 to 2017, 20% and 16% of patients in average- and high-capacity markets, respectively, experienced a PCI hospital opening within a 15-minute drive. In average-capacity markets, openings were associated with a 2.6 percentage point decrease in admission to a high-volume PCI facility; high-capacity markets saw an 11.6 percentage point decrease. After an opening, patients in average-capacity markets experienced a 5.5% and 7.6% relative increase in likelihood of same-day and in-hospital revascularization, respectively, as well as a 2.5% decrease in mortality. PCI hospital closures were associated with a 10.4% relative increase in admission to high-volume PCI hospitals and a 1.4 percentage point decrease in receipt of same-day PCI. There was no change observed in high-capacity PCI markets.

Conclusions: After openings, patients in average-capacity markets derived significant benefits, whereas those in high-capacity markets did not. This suggests that past a certain threshold, facility opening does not improve access and health outcomes.

Keywords: Medicare; PCI access; PCI outcomes; market capacity; percutaneous coronary intervention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Hospitalization
  • Hospitals, High-Volume
  • Humans
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / adverse effects
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome